Non-selective 5-HT · September 6, 2022

Each heavy and light chain cDNA sequence was synthesized as its mutated immune form or as a pre-immune ancestor where all somatic mutations were reverted to germline sequence

Each heavy and light chain cDNA sequence was synthesized as its mutated immune form or as a pre-immune ancestor where all somatic mutations were reverted to germline sequence. germline sequence. The reactivity of pre-immune and immune antibodies for Ro52, Ro60, La and DNA was measured. Both anti-Ro52 autoantibodies exhibited a low frequency of somatic mutations (3-4%) and utilised the same heavy and light chain genes but represented distinct clones based on differing complementarity determining region sequences. Pre- and post-immune antibodies showed specific binding to Ro52 with no measurable reactivity for other autoantigens. Ro52 binding was higher for immune antibodies compared to pre-immune counterparts demonstrating that autoreactivity was enhanced by affinity maturation. These data indicate that Ro52 reactivity is an Vanin-1-IN-1 intrinsic property of the germline antibody repertoire in a mother with a pathogenic antibody defined by cardiac injury in her offspring, and implies defects in both central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms. 1. INTRODUCTION The cardiac disease of neonatal lupus (cardiac NL) is a passively acquired autoimmune syndrome in which normally developing foetuses suffer irreversible damage to their hearts upon transplacental passage of maternal IgG autoantibodies (autoAbs). Cardiac conduction defects (most characteristic being congenital heart block) detected before or at birth, in the absence of structural abnormalities, almost universally predicts the presence of autoAbs against 60kD Vanin-1-IN-1 and 52kD SSA/Ro (Ro60 and Ro52) in the mother regardless of her health status [1]. Two hypotheses have emerged to explain the pathogenesis of cardiac NL, both of which emphasize autoAbs as the central mediators of tissue Vanin-1-IN-1 injury in the foetal heart. The apoptosis hypothesis states that the intracellular SSA/Ro antigens translocate to the surface of cardiomyocytes undergoing apoptosis during physiologic remodelling and are bound by maternal autoAbs forming immune complexes that promote pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses [2-5]. The second FASLG hypothesis proposes that autoAbs cross-react with myocyte surface proteins, specifically L-type calcium channels and cause dysregulation of calcium homeostasis [6-9]. While there has been extensive investigation into the pathogenesis of anti-SSA/Ro autoAbs in cardiac NL, few studies have addressed where these autoAbs derive. Elucidating the origin of an autoAb response is critical for understanding autoimmunity in the mother and for proposing targeted therapies. Autoantibodies can arise from two potential sources: a B cell that was born self reactive such that it has assembled an Ig surface receptor with moderate affinity for self antigen in the bone marrow; or a B cell that has acquired self reactivity by chance through somatic hypermutation during an immune response. B cells bearing antibodies with the heavy chain variable segment are an example of a B cell born self-reactive [10-13]. Despite binding a pathologically significant blood cell surface autoantigen, IGHV4-34 B cells avoid clonal deletion in the bone marrow and constitute 5-10% of the circulating na?ve B cell repertoire in healthy individuals. However, these cells display characteristics of anergy with down-regulated surface IgM and functional unresponsiveness [14]. More recently, IGHV4-34 B cells were shown to participate in immune responses to foreign antigens by acquiring mutations to remove binding to self-blood cells, demonstrating a clonal redemption mechanism for acquiring self-non-self discrimination by mutation away from self [15]. In contrast to clonal redemption, other studies have demonstrated somatic hypermutation as a means to acquiring self-reactivity to specific autoantigens including dsDNA in SLE [16, 17], type 1 interferons in AIRE deficiency [18], desmoglenin-3 in pemphigus [19] and GM-CSF in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis [20]. In each study the reversion of all antibody somatic hypermutations to their germline sequence resulted in no measurable interaction with the self-antigen. These findings implied that self-reactivity was acquired by chance during an immune response to an unrelated exogenous antigen. The goal of this study was to determine whether anti-SSA/Ro autoAbs derive from B cells that are intrinsically self-reactive or acquire autoreactivity. We isolated anti-Ro52 autoAbs Vanin-1-IN-1 from an asymptomatic mother whose offspring were affected by cardiac NL, and showed that anti-Ro52 autoAbs derive from nascent self-reactive na?ve B cells that required little somatic.