DNA Ligases · January 31, 2023

were abundant in both but in varied proportions

were abundant in both but in varied proportions. of the Himalayas like in Leh C Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state, India (Angchok et al., 2009) and in a few places in Tibet and China (Tamang, 2010). According to the belief of the native people, this leavened bread can protect them against harsh environmental stresses (extreme cold at around -25C during winter, strong wind, and low humidity) and provide adequate energy and mouth feeling (Angchok et al., 2009). The culinary practice is also unique and seems to be an inherited food culture of the Indus valley civilization. Rural women have the required knowledge of the proper art of baking this bread. Cleaned wheat flour is mixed with an adequate amount of salt, water, and buttermilk or yeast powder (marketed Bakers yeast). Then the dough is wrapped with a clean cloth and ML277 kept in a traditional kitchen overnight. Layers of cloth are ML277 wrapped over the container to maintain the temperature. The next day, the fermented dough is divided and hand-shaped into small ball-like structures (each having the weight around 200 g). It is then baked initially on hot stones and finally, directly in a fire made of wood or cow dung. It is finished off on the embers inside the fire, using edible oil (Figure 1). It can be stored at room temperature for more than a week. These traditional flat breads are gaining popularity among outsiders due to the rapid growth of village tourism, home stay, or ethnic ML277 ML277 food tourism in these regions (Tamang, 2010). Open in a separate window FIGURE 1 Traditional process of preparation. After overnight incubation of wheat flour and starter (yeast or buttermilk), the fermented dough is divided, and ball shaped by hand (A). The handmade round-shaped dough is baked over a hot stone and then under direct fire (B). The final cleaned and polished brown bread is ready for consumption (C). Although the native people believe in the health benefits of loop model study of rat intestine, to prove its detoxification activity. Materials and Methods Chemicals All the chemicals used in this study are of analytical grade and was procured from standard companies. Sample Collection and Preparation samples were collected from households in two villages (and which are about 10 km away from the town of Leh) in the Leh district, Jammu and Kashmir state, India. Three types of preparation, (YAK), and buttermilk added (BAK) were collected. Then the samples were transferred into a sterile container and transported to the laboratory through an ice box. Bread samples were dried in a food dryer at 55C for 10 h, and then dissolved into sterile distilled water (0.1%, w/v) by homogenization and centrifuged at 2000 for 10 min. The supernatant was used as a food extract for further studies. Microbiological Analysis The quantity of the prevalent group of microbes in the food samples (direct sample) was enumerated on the basis of colony-forming units (cfu). The counts of different bacterial group were performed based on their colony morphology and color in various selective and differential agar media. Briefly, 10 g of the raw sample was mixed with a 100 ml of phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.2) and used as stock for the microbial count. The group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and sp. were cultivated in Rogosa SL agar (supplemented with 0.132% acetic acid) and Bifidobacterium agar supplemented with Bifidobacterium Selective Supplement (HiMedia, FD285), respectively, and plates were incubated in a CO2 incubator (5% CO2), at 37C (Adak et al., 2013). All of the luxuriant growing colonies were CCNE2 enumerated for the above-mentioned bacteria. Total aerobic bacteria were quantified using Plate Count Agar (PCA) media and incubated at 37C (Adak et al., 2013). Yeast and mold were enumerated by using yeast and mold agar, and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media, respectively, and incubated at 30C. The mycelial and round convex colonies were recorded for the.